Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies in Newborns in Zabol: A Single Hospital Based Study


1 Faculty of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran

2 Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Mother and Newborn Health Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

4 Department of Research and Technology, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran

5 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Yazd

6 Preventative Gynecology Research Center, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: Congenital anomalies are conditions of prenatal origin that are present at birth, potentially impacting an infant's health, development and survival. The birth of a newborn with congenital anomalies imposes financial and emotional burdens on families. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in 2014 in Zabol, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Amir Al-Momenin Hospital between May of 2013 and April 2014. All the live born were included, and we have examined all newborns for the presence of congenital anomalies.
Results: During the twelve months, 9,309 newborns were included to the study. Of them, 72 (0.8%) newborns were affected with a congenital malformation. The congenital anomalies affected significantly higher proportion of male newborns (66.7%) than female newborns (33.3%). Among of them, musculoskeletal system abnormalities account for 45.9% of the total abnormalities allocating the highest frequency to itself. Subsequently, central nervous system abnormality (19.4%), gastrointestinal anomaly (15.3%), urinary tract abnormality (9.7%), chromosomal abnormality (2.8%), and multiple anomalies (1.4%) were frequent, respectively.
Conclusion: This study showed that prevalence of congenital anomalies is restively high in Zabol city. The results of this study identify the necessity of genetic counseling and early diagnosis to prevention, care and surveillance.


1. Chen I, Jhangri GS, Chandra S. Relationship between interpregnancy interval and congenital anomalies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014; 210(6): 564. e1-8.
2. Jangra B, Singh M, Rattan KN, Kadian YS, Kaur A. Congenital anomalies in paediatric surgery in North India. Afr J Paediatr Surg 2014; 11(1): 39-43.
3. Rasmussen SA, Hernandez-Diaz S, Abdul-Rahman OA, Sahin L, PetrieCR, Keppler-NoreuilKM, et al. Assessment of congenital anomalies in infants born to pregnant women enrolled in clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59(Suppl 7): S428-436.
4. DeSilva M, Munoz FM, Mcmillan M, Kawai AT, Marshall H, Macartney KK, et al. Congenital anomalies: Case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine 2016; 34(49): 6015-26.
5. Peralta-Mamani M, Terrero-Perez A, Dalben G, Rubira CMF, Honorio HM, Rubira-Bullen IF. Treatment of lower lip pits in Van der Woude syndrome: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018; 47(4): 421-7.
6. Fadaei Dehcheshmeh N, Arab M, Rahimi Fouroshani A, Farzianpour F. Survey of communicable diseases surveillance system in hospitals of Iran: A qualitative approach. Glob J Health Sci 2016; 8(9): 53909.
7. Hindryckx A, de Catte L. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformations. Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2011; 3(3): 165-74.
8. Neirijnck Y, Reginensi A, Renkema KY, Massa F, Kozlov VM, Dhib H, et al. Sox11 gene disruption causes congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Kidney Int 2018; 93(5): 1142-53.
9. Shim KW, Park EK, Kim JS, Kim YO, Kim DS. Neurodevelopmental Problems in Non-Syndromic Craniosynostosis. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2016; 59(3): 242-6.
10. Slack E, Rankin J, Jones D, Heslehurst N. Effects of maternal anthropometrics on pregnancy outcomes in South Asian women: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2018; 19(4): 485-500.
11. Silva A, Baptista MJ, Araujo E. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. Rev Port Cardiol 2018; 37(4): 341-50.
12. Czeizel AE. Birth defects are preventable. Int J Med Sci 2005; 2(3): 91-2.
13. Cone JB. Vascular injury associated with fracture-dislocations of the lower extremity. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1989; (243): 30-35.
14. Kim JW, Sung CM, Cho SH, Hwang SC. Vascular injury associated with blunt trauma without dislocation of the knee. Yonsei Med J 2010; 51(5): 790-2.
15. Fornari Gomes Chueire AJ, Carvalho Filho G, Kobayashi OY, Carrenho L. Treatment of congenital clubfoot using Ponseti method. Rev Bras Ortop 2016; 51(3): 313-8.
16. Basit S, Khoshhal KI. Genetics of clubfoot; recent progress and future perspectives. Eur J Med Genet 2018; 61(2): 107-13.
17. Nagalo K, Ouedraogo I, Laberge JM, Caouette-Laberge L, Turgeon J. Congenital malformations and medical conditions associated with orofacial clefts in children in Burkina Faso. BMC Pediatr 2017; 17(1): 72.
18. Doray B, Badila-Timbolschi D, Schaefer E, Fattori D, Monga B, Dott B, et al. [Epidemiology of orofacial clefts (1995-2006) in France (Congenital Malformations of Alsace Registry)]. Arch Pediatr 2012; 19(10): 1021-9. [In French].
19. Mahdieh N, Rabbani B. An overview of mutation detection methods in genetic disorders. Iran J Pediatr 2013; 23(4): 375-88.
20. Bartel-Friedrich S, Wulke C. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 6: Doc05.
21. Bouty A, Ayers KL, Pask A, Heloury Y, Sinclair AH. The genetic and environmental factors underlying hypospadias. Sex Dev 2015; 9(5): 239-59.
22. Tordjman S, Somogyi E, Coulon N, Kermarrec S, Cohen D, Bronsard G, et al. Gene x environment interactions in autism spectrum disorders: role of epigenetic mechanisms. Front Psychiatry 2014; 5: 53.
23. Mahmoudabadi FS, Ziaei S, Firoozabadi M, Kazemnejad A. Use of mobile phone during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2015; 13: 34.
24. Shamsi Mahmoudabadi F, Ziaei S, Firoozabadi M, Kazemnejad A. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion: a case-control study. J Res Health Sci
Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies in Newborns 2013; 13(2): 131-4.
25. Alijahan R, Hazrati S, Mirzarahimi M, Pourfarzi F, Ahmadi Hadi P. Prevalence and risk factors associated with preterm birth in Ardabil, Iran. Iran J Reprod Med 2014; 12(1): 47-56.
26. Vatankhah S, Jalilvand M, Sarkhosh S, Azarmi M, Mohseni M. Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies in Iran: A Review Article. Iran J Public Health 2017; 46(6): 733-43.
27. Mamouri GH, Khatami F, Hamedi AB. Congenital Dislocation of the Hip in Newborns in the City of Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 2003; 28(3): 127-30.
28. Hematyar M, Khajouie P. Prevalence of congenital anomalies in 1000 live births in Javaheri Hospital, Tehran, 2004. Med Sci J Islamic Azad Univ Tehran Med Branch 2005; 15(2): 75-8.
29. Shokouhi M, Mani kashani KH. Prevalance of obvious congenital anomalies and some related factors in newborns in Fatemieh hospital of Hamadan during March to September 1999. J- J
Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2002; 12(35): 42-7.
30. Shajari H, Mohammadi N, Karbalai M. Prevalence of congenital malformations observed in neonates in Shariati Hospital (2001-2004). Iran J Pediatr 2006; 16(3): 308-12.
31. Movahedian AH, Mosayebi Z, Yousefian S, Mazouchi T. Congenital anomalies and consanguineous marriage. Feyz 2002; 6(3): 84-8. [In Persian].
32. Resetar AM, Stephens JM, Chalovich JM. Troponin-tropomyosin: an allosteric switch or a steric blocker? Biophysical Journal 2002; 83(2): 1039-49.
33. Watkins H, McKenna WJ, Thierfelder L, Suk HJ, Anan R, O'Donoghue A, et al. Mutations in the Genes for Cardiac Troponin T and alpha-Tropomyosin in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 1995; 332(16): 1058-64.
34. Dutta V, Chaturvedi P. Congenital malformations in rural Maharashtra. Indian Pediatr 2000; 37(9): 998-1001.
Volume 1, Issue 1
July 2018
Pages 7-14
  • Receive Date: 24 October 2017
  • Revise Date: 23 December 2017
  • Accept Date: 26 June 2017
  • First Publish Date: 01 July 2018