A Survey on Cardiac Complications of COVID-19 in Infants

Document Type : Scientific Review


1 Neonatal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Mother and Newborn Health Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Department of Hematology and Blood Banking, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Congenital heart disease (CHD) may have serious effects on the course of COVID-19. Limited data were available on CHD in neonates with COVID-19. This study aimed to review the cardiac complications in neonates infected with COVID-19. Some studies showed that myocardial injury in adult patients is often correlated with a fatal outcome. But, scientific evidence in infants is rare, although several reports were published with the description of cardiac involvement in COVID-19 pediatric patients. In these young subjects, a background of surgically treated CHD seems to be a predisposing factor. Numerous studies showed Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c) is a deadly demonstration of COVID-19 with cardiac involvement. The underlying pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated cardiovascular complications is not fully understood, although direct viral infection of the myocardium, systemic inflammatory response, coagulation abnormalities and thrombosis and hypoxia have been suggested as possible mechanisms of cardiac complications. It seems COVID-19 can affect different parts of the heart; however, the myocardium is more involved. The mechanisms of pathogenesis of cardiovascular implications in adults and infants are similar but CHD and MIS-c in infants are more important. Further studies on the effects of COVID-19 on the neonatal cardiovascular system are needed.


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