Application of Golden Nanoparticles against Streptococcus Mutans for Prevention of Caries Lesions

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Science, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Mother and Newborn Health Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

4 Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran


Background: Dental caries also known as baby bottle tooth decay, is a critical public health problem around the world for which Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) has been introduced as the main infectious etiology. In the past two decades, nanotechnology has permitted the development of new materials with antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to compare the bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of three golden nanoparticles (SP, NR, and CS) on S.mutans.
Methods: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), a liquid dilution method was applied.
Results: All golden nanoparticles (GNPs) showed antimicrobial activity with no statistically significant differences (> 0.05) in MIC or MBC.
Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the size and shape of the nanoparticles did not significantly affect the antimicrobial properties of the GNPs. This finding might be useful for achieving important clinical effects with reduced toxicity in the management of early childhood caries in future in vivo studies.


1. Karp JM. Dental surgery under general anesthesia for preschool patients with orofacial clefts. Pediatr Dent 2009; 31(5): 426-31.
2. Sheiham A. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children. Br Dent J 2006; 201(10): 625-6.
3. Touger-Decker R, Loveren CV. Sugars and dental caries. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78(4): 881S-892S. 
4. Ojeda-Garcés JC, Oviedo-García E, Salas LA. Streptococcus mutans and dental caries. Rev CES Odont 2013; 26(1): 44-56.
5. Valdez RMA, Duque C, Caiaffa KS, Dos Santos VR, de Aguiar Loesch ML, Colombo NH, et al. Genotypic diversity and phenotypic traits of Streptococcus mutans isolates and their relation to severity of early childhood caries. BMC Oral Health 2017; 17(1): 115.
6. Ghazal TS, Levy SM, Childers NK, Carter KD, Caplan DJ, Warren JJ, et al. Mutans streptococci and dental caries: A new statistical modeling approach. Caries Res 2018; 52(3): 246-52.
7. Chatterjee T, Das SMP. Antimicrobial efficacy of some medicinal plant extract against Streptococcus mutans causing dental caries. J Med Plants Stud 2017; 5(2): 315-7.
8. Law V, Seow WK, Townsend G. Factors influencing oral colonization of mutans streptococci in young children. Aust Dent J 2007; 52(2): 93-100.
9. Berkowitz RJ. Mutans streptococci: acquisition and transmission. Pediatr Dent 2006; 28(2): 106-9.
10. Pintus A, Aragoni MC, Cinellu MA, Maiore L, Isaia F, Lippolis V, et al. [Au (pyb-H)(mnt)]: A novel gold (III) 1, 2-dithiolene cyclometalated complex with antimicrobial activity (pyb-H= C-deprotonated 2-benzylpyridine; mnt= 1, 2-dicyanoethene-1, 2-dithiolate). J Inorg Biochem 2017; 170, 188-94.
11. Zhang Y, Peng H, Huang W, Zhou Y, Yan D. Facile preparation and characterization of highly antimicrobial colloid Ag or Au nanoparticles. J Colloid Interface Sci 2008; 325(2): 371-6.
12. Ott I. On the medicinal chemistry of gold complexes as anticancer drugs. Coord Chem Rev 2009; 253(11): 1670-81.
13. Khan JA, Pillai B, Das TK, Singh Y, Maiti S. Molecular effects of uptake of gold nanoparticles in HeLa cells. Chembiochem 2007; 8(11): 1237-40.
14. Chithrani BD, Chan WC. Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein-coated gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. Nano Lett 2007; 7(6): 1542-50.
15. Isaac G, Renitta RE. Brown Algae mediated synthesis, characterization of gold nano particles using Padina pavonica and their antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Int J PharmTech Res 2015; 8(9): 31-40.
16. Ajdić D, McShan WM, McLaughlin RE, Savić G, Chang J, Carson MB, et al. Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99(22): 14434-9.
17. Selwitz RH, Ismail AI, Pitts NB. Dental caries. Lancet 2007; 369(9555): 51-9.
18. Kennedy LC, Bickford LR, Lewinski NA, Coughlin AJ, Hu Y, et al. A new era for cancer treatment: gold-nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Small 2011; 7(2): 169-83.
19. Chen Y, Xianyu Y, Jiang X. Surface modification of gold nanoparticles with small molecules for biochemical analysis. Acc Chem Res 2017; 50(2): 310-9.
20. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: a green expertise. J Adv Res 2016; 7(1): 17-28.
21. Gupta A, Landis RF, Rotello VM. Nanoparticle-based antimicrobials: surface functionality is critical. F1000Res 2016; 5: F1000.
22. Joshi HM, Bhumkar DR, Joshi K, Pokharkar V, Sastry M. Gold nanoparticles as carriers for efficient transmucosal insulin delivery. Langmuir 2006; 22(1): 300-5.
23. Shah M, Badwaik V, Kherde Y, Waghwani HK, Modi T, Aguilar ZP, et al. Gold nanoparticles: various methods of synthesis and antibacterial applications. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2014; 19, 1320-44.
24. Rossolini GM, Arena F, Pecile P, Pollini S. Update on the antibiotic resistance crisis. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2014; 18: 56-60.
25. Hajishengallis E, Parsaei Y, Klein MI, Koo H. Advances in the microbial etiology and pathogenesis of early childhood caries. Mol Oral Microbiol 2017; 32(1): 24-34.
26. Tonetti MS, Bottenberg P, Conrads G, Eickholz P, Heasman P, Huysmans MC, et al. Dental caries and periodontal diseases in the ageing population: call to action to protect and enhance oral health and well‐being as an essential component of healthy ageing–Consensus report of group 4 of the joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases. J Clin Periodontol 2017; 44(Suppl 18): S135-44.
27. da Fonseca MA. Malnutrition and Oral Health in Children. Curr Oral Health Rep 2017; 4(2): 92-6.
28. Hujoel PP, Lingström P. Nutrition, dental caries and periodontal disease: a narrative review. J Clin Periodontol 2017; 44(Suppl 18): S79-84.